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List of IACP Invited Presentations at the Roundtable Forum

June 9-11, 2007, Beijing



Influence of Urban Form on Travel Behavior

in Four Neighborhoods of Shanghai



Qing Shen, Ph.D., 沈青Professor

School of Architecture, Planning, and Preservation

University of Maryland

College Park, MD 20742, USA

Tel: 301-405-6797

Email: qshen@umd.edu



Ming Zhang, Ph.D., 张明Assistant Professor

1 University Station, B7500

School of Architecture

University of Texas at Austin

Austin, TX 78712, USA

Tel: 512-471-0139

Email: zhangm@mail.utexas.edu





Since the 1980s, much of the new urban development in China has departed significantly from the traditional pedestrian and bicycle oriented urban form. This study examines the effects of the urban spatial transformation on travel based on a travel survey of 1,817 individuals from four selected neighborhoods of Shanghai. Although pedestrian/cyclist-friendly urban form may not avert the general trend of motorization growth induced by rising income, it does help slow down the pace of growth and reduces the need for high levels of motor vehicle ownership. In the pedestrian/cyclist-friendly neighborhoods, residents travel shorter distances than in other neighborhoods even though the same modes of travel are used. Pedestrian/cyclist friendly urban form makes the non-motorized modes feasible options, which is essential to limit automobile dependence. These findings suggest that land use planning and urban design can effectively influence people’s mobility demand and travel behavior towards achieving “green transportation” in urban China.


Key words: travel behavior, urban form, Shanghai, logistic regression







精明增长和新城市主义的理念正盛行于世界各地. 北美的许多城市倡导该理念的目标之一就是要通过改变城市形态与空间环境特征来减少人们对小汽车的极度依赖和由此依赖而产生的许多交通, 环境和社会问题 城市形态与交通行为的相关程度决定了以这一理念为基础的城市和交通政策的有效性, 因而成为学术研究的热点. 中国城市自上世纪80年代以来因经济增长而正经历着城市形态的转型. 新扩展(和更新)的社区越来越远离传统的城市形态特征. 这种转型是否导致对小汽车依赖性的增加, 趋于与精明增长和新城市主义理念所要避免的方向? 换个方式问, 转型的城市形态是否对日趋严重的中国城市交通问题负直接责任? 如果是, 城市规划设计应如何应对? 回答这些问题同样依赖于对城市形态与交通行为的相关性的认识与理解. 本文通过对上海的四个邻里的研究深入理解在中国的社会经济背景下城市形态与交通行为的关系, 尝试回答以上既有规划设计实践意义又有学术重要性的问题.




Creating the Harmonious City in Shanghai:

The Socialist-Market, Local-Global

 Dynamic in a Megacity


Barry Weisberg (bweisberg@vppps.org)

University of Illinois at Chicago, USA

CityMayors (2006) proclaimed “China is at the forefront of the greatest urban-industrial revolution of all time.” The current model of Chinese development presents both promise and peril in addressing the complex challenges of city development.    Urban governance and planning are often unsuccessful in  addressing “spatial conflicts, cultural collisions, resource shortages and environmental degeneration,” (Better City, Better Life), let alone  unprecedented migration, the “youth bulge,” slums, inequality or the conditions of global warming. The response is often greater social control. Democracy is sacrificed on the altar of development or safety. This process is highlighted as a city prepares for international mega events.    

Three concerns of the harmonious city are addressed within the framework of market socialism.   First, how does market socialism address the social and planetary forces shaping cities: mega cities as engines of growth and national development and the varieties of vulnerability and risk - complexity, conflict, connectedness, density, dependency, diversity, footprint, migration, scale, speed.  Second, the balance between six local-global,  centrifugal-centripetal, exogenous-endogenous flows that produce the harmonious city (6C): culture, capital, country, city, community and citizen.   Third, three (3S) components of a humane, just and harmonious city:  individual safety (freedom from violence, crime) collective safety (economic, social, political, cultural needs and rights) and generational sustainability (air, land, water, ecosystems, species diversity).  

For the first time in human history the majority of humanity is living in cities. But cities in general, and megacities in particular, lack adequate strategies for harmonious development. The existing global infrastructure, including the forces of globalization, the United Nations, the Millennium Development Goals and states, do not adequately address the increasingly decisive role of cities.

In China, rapid growth has produced disparities in development and distribution.  The paper asks if the contest between socialism and the market  will lead Shanghai toward the polarization, marginalization, ‘dangerous communities,’ urban violence and ecological hazards associated with most megacities in the developing world,  or toward a harmonious city?  As with harmony in music, will the dissonance or the tonality prevail?




Implementing Transit-oriented Development in China: Challenges and Opportunities for Jinan, Shandong China


Alainna Thomas

PhD candidate, University of California, Berkeley

c/o University of California Transportation Center

University of California, Berkeley, 2614 Dwight Way, Berkeley, CA 94720

(510) 229-7934, alliet@berkeley.edu


Urban cities across China are undergoing phenomenal urbanization rates and uncontrolled economic growth. Jinan, the capital of Shandong Province, is projected to have 5.4 million residents by 2020, according to its 11th Five-Year Plan. Within this timeframe, its built area will almost double to 450 square kilometers. Despite this projected surge of growth, the Central Government recently tasked municipal governments to cut energy use within the next five years by 20 percent.


Jinan's municipal leaders are pursuing ways to funnel growth and direct their economy onto a more sustainable path. Some believe Smart Growth tools such as transit-oriented development (TOD) could be utilized throughout the city, in addition to bus rapid transit (BRT) nodes. Some leaders aspire to model Jinan’s development after Portland, Oregon, incorporating a large scale, citywide TOD that would include compact mixed-use development, high density, pedestrian-friendly design, and strict parking policies. With a more cohesive and comprehensive plan that links transportation and land use, they believe they can channel their rapid growth better and meet the new energy efficiency demands of the Central Government.


This paper identifies some of the challenges and opportunities for implementing TOD in Jinan through analyzing the historical, economic, and institutional factors that drive and influence the current state of urban planning in Jinan. In addition, critical elements that have led to Portland’s success, such as fostering a collaborative planning environment, are analyzed to illustrate the necessary elements for promoting a more sustainable mode of urban development. This paper is part of an on-going collaboration project between the University of California Transportation Center at UC Berkeley and Jinan.





A unique planning model for waterfronts that harnesses existing knowledge and resources


Bennur Koksuz

Director of Urban Design Division

Philadelphia City Planning Commission

1515 Arch Street 13th Floor

Philadelphia PA. 19102


215 275 6556




Water is a basic building block of life; humans cannot exist without access to water. Civilizations have always started at the water’s edge. It has resulted in almost all great cities being located near water’s edges. In the early period of development the underlining theme was “We borrowed the land, used it and left it in better shape then it was.”  As mankind discovered more uses for water, especially in the industrial age, the theme changed to “We borrowed the water’s edge but it will never be used up”.


Today we are at a critical tipping point. The ecological debt we incurred with rapid and uncontrolled development of the water’s edge is coming due for payment.  We discovered we have used up our water’s edge without thinking about repaying what we borrowed. We can no longer continue to use it at this pace or we will face a global crisis of water shortages and pollution. We must address competing tensions in planning - open space versus development, ecology versus industrialization, residential riverfront versus working port, local amenities versus regional destination, pedestrian versus traffic. We also have our broad based value systems - the ecology of the riverfront, its environmental and economic sustainability, historic preservation, cultural sensitivity and provision of safe living on the waterfront.


This paper will propose a unique model for waterfront planning.  It will use civic engagement of all stakeholders to create a vision for the water’s edge.  All users of the waterfront will incorporate their values as input to planning. The users will become the planners to decide the destiny of their waterfront as joint custodians and future users. The role of the planner in this process is as an orchestra leader who guides the people with his/her knowledge and tools.


This planning model is applicable to micro scale urban design projects, as well as large scale planning projects in any city and country. It suggests learning from existing physical, social, cultural, economic and environmental infrastructures and then planning the future as an overlay to the existing infrastructure. It contemplates building this plan with the implementation tools that already exist.




Empirical Evidence from Hangzhou’s Urban Land Reform: Evolution, Structure, Constraints and Prospects

Zhu Qian
Department of Landscape Architecture and Urban Planning

College of Architecture, Texas A & M University

College Station, TX 77843-3137, U. S. A.

Email: zqian@tamu.edu.

Phone: 1-979-847-6270.


China’s urban land reform is a gradualist process of transforming a planned land allocation system to an open land market system, while the ownership of the land remains under the control of the state. Through a series of reforms in institutions and policies, urban land markets have emerged rapidly. This study aims to analyze the evolution of urban land reform in Hangzhou, one of the spearhead cities in China’s urban land reforms, to discuss its emerging structure of urban land market—its legal, institutional and financial frameworks, to identify the current urban land management characteristics and the principal constraints, and to propose relevant recommendations for urban land reform with emphasis on rural land rights and expropriation, interactions between central and local governments, and non-government sector’s participation in urban land use management. Besides the policy implications, the study concludes that urban land reform in Hangzhou has been actively interacts with economic reforms in other fields in a variety of ways; that a monopolized supply mechanism of urban land is not necessarily a detriment to the development of a market system in the urban land economy; and that a government-led land use management model with little civil society and public participation is one of the most significant constraints in China’s urban land reforms.




The Inclusive City


Susan M. Goltsman, FASLA, Principal, Moore Iacofano Goltsman, Inc.

Daniel S. Iacofano, Ph.D., FAICP, Principal, Moore Iacofano Goltsman, Inc.


800 Hearst Avenue, Berkeley, California, 94710

Mi-Yung Rhee, Senior Marketing Manager, Moore Iacofano Goltsman, Inc.

(510) 845-7549, ext. 111



Session Description:

Cities today face a profound challenge and an extraordinary opportunity: how do we balance the physical improvements of urban revitalization with the goals of social equity, economic development and public health for all city inhabitants? Our unfinished agenda as a society is to confront and overcome the enormous disparities that divide our communities.


This session proposes a comprehensive solution: inclusive planning and design based on socially, environmentally and culturally sensitive policies and processes that allow communities to shape their own environments—so everyone improves economically as the physical realm is revitalized.


During this session, case studies will be presented to offer a practical look at a range of successful, inclusive projects with positive social impacts in urban environments—and one important result in common: the process of completing the project added value to the community beyond the physical project itself.


This session is intended for any planner, designer, architect, landscape architect, developer, policy maker and most of all, community member who shares a passion for creating great urban places.




Collaborative Planning in a Riverfront Development Project, South Suburban Chicago: Process, Evaluation and Implication


Lan Wang

Ph.D. Student

University of Illinois at Chicago

412 S. Peoria St.

Chicago, IL 60607


Tel: 773-358-8338


Prof. Tingwei Zhang

University of Illinois at Chicago

412 S. Peoria St.

Chicago, IL 60607


Tel: 312-355-0303


Mr. Hubert Morgan

Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning

Sears Tower,

233 S. Wacker Dr.

Suite 800,

Chicago, IL 60606


Tel: 312-415-0139



Viewing planning as a communicative or collaborative process has gained increasing theoretical popularity and attention in planning practice (Allmendinger, 2002). The underlying theory of communicative rationality, which was developed in abstract by Habermas and in practical for planning by Forester, Healey, and Innes, etc, provides guidance on how planners can work with fragmented and conflict interest groups, reach agreement among them and then develop a plan. It highlights that knowledge is produced through a series of discourses that engage all those with differing interests around a task in a set of ideal conditions for equal dialogue (Innes et al, 1999). The discourses enable planners to "undertake consensus-building work through which to create inter-culturally sensitive strategies for managing our common concerns in urban region space" (Healey 1996 P239), and provide a potential opportunity for planners to re-cognize and re-think about the values, strategies, consequences and implications (Forester, 2001).


In this paper, we use a riverfront development project in Chicago, which involves seven municipalities in the south suburban area, as a case to explore how collaborative planning provides rationality for a project of multiple jurisdictions where there is no statutory planning authority, and how discourses are promoted through innovated planning tools. First, we examine the role of diverse participants in the project: the founder - a foundation, the budget manager - a non-government organization, and the project team consisting of a quasi-governmental regional organization, a consultant group and a professional urban planning and design firm. The relationships among them and their interaction with stakeholders shaped the agenda development and the methods adopted in the planning process. Then the paper discusses the planning tools and participation design in the process to reinforce the discourses among stakeholders of the project. Vision workshop, focus group and steering committee meeting are three basic ways providing arenas within which to construct a "public realm" and to make discourses happen (Healey, 1996). Furthermore, we evaluate the planning process in this project with a reference to the original idea of discourse (Allmendinger, 2002), the ladder of participation (Arnstein, 1969) and the framework of evaluating consensus-building developed by Innes (Connick and Innes 2003, Innes et al. 1999, Innes 2004). 


Finally, the paper highlights some implications to the current Chinese planning. The project has successfully engaged the public through innovative ways, which may be applicable to similar multi-jurisdictional projects in China. More importantly, communicative rationality might be valuable for a broad range of Chinese planning practice within the changing and increasingly complex society in the era of globalization. Planners should engage diverse voices of interests into a more transparent planning process and reinforce the discourse through the planning tools and methods discussed in this case, aiming at solving the problem of uncertainty and unpredictability in a complex urban system and promoting a sustainable and harmonious urban development.





Cudgels and Collaboration:  Commercial Development Regulation and Support in the Portland, Oregon-Vancouver, Washington Metropolitan Region


By Edward J. Sullivan


            I am a planning lawyer and wrote this paper for a symposium on urban development at the Vermont Law School.  The paper demonstrates that sub-national government units can, and should, work with private developers.  The government actors have sufficient authority to plan and construct infrastructure, while private developers have the capital to fund that infrastructure and cooperate with governments to realize plans that are publicly discussed and adopted and realized efficiently because they reflect the market. 

            Rather than deal with theory, this paper studies particular development approaches in the Portland-Vancouver Metropolitan area, which spans two states and involves two different state planning systems.  Both systems seek to preserve resource lands by limiting urban development to urban areas within specific boundaries.  To assure that too much land will not be taken for urban use prematurely, both systems invest funds in infrastructure and emphasize intensive development within urban areas. 







大棒与合作: 俄勒冈州-波特兰和华盛顿州温哥华地区商业开发的法律规范和支持




            本文从实践而非理论的角度出发,研究了跨两州、涉及两套不同的政府规划体系的波特兰-温哥华地区的特殊开发举措。这两套政府规划体系都希望:通过划定具体界限,将城市发展限制在城市区域之内以保护资源用地; 通过基础设施投资,鼓励城市区域的高强度开发,以避免过多的土地过早地被投入城市用途。




   中国正处于农地向城市用地大规模转化的时刻,这些土地往往是即可用于农业,又可用于城市用地,因此合理配制土地用途是非常重要的。  并且,为城市区域提供相应的基础设施资金也是很关键的。 本文希望为政府机构与私营部门建立伙伴关系以解决这些问题提供一点建议和参考。





Delay Dynamics of Public Project Confronted with Location of LULU Facilities


Man-Hyung Lee, Ph.D


Department of Urban Engineering,

Chungbuk National University

12 Gaeshin-Dong, Heungduck-Gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk, 361-763, Korea

Tel: 82-43-261-2369/Fax: 82-43-276-2369

E-mail: manlee@cbu.ac.kr


Joong-Hoon Lee

Ph.D Candidate

Department of Urban Engineering,

Chungbuk National University

12 Gaeshin-Dong, Heungduck-Gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk, 361-763, Korea

Tel: 82-43-261-2369/Fax: 82-43-276-2369

E-mail: dosilee@hanmail.net


Kwang-Ju Kim

Graduate Student

Department of Urban Engineering,

Chungbuk National University

12 Gaeshin-Dong, Heungduck-Gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk, 361-763, Korea

Tel: 82-43-261-2369/Fax: 82-43-276-2369

E-mail: slogs@nate.com


Mi-Ra Lee

Graduate Student

Department of Urban Engineering,

Chungbuk National University

12 Gaeshin-Dong, Heungduck-Gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk, 361-763, Korea

Tel: 82-43-261-2369/Fax: 82-43-276-2369

E-mail: whlml@hanmail.net




The purpose of this study is to find what factors are directly related to the delay of public project, usually going beyond the planned deadline and budget. Using causal loops and stock-flow models derived from System Dynamics(SD) approaches, it focuses on cases of Cremation Projects in Korea. After a series of simulation works, the research finds that the negative externalities originated from the adjacent location of the LULU(locally unwanted land use) facilities have exerted significant influence on dynamic perceptions of key stakeholders, typically resulting in project delay. Furthermore, we observe that the proposed alternative negotiation-based models would produce relatively higher planning performance level than the typical approaches hinged on the administrative-expediency tactics. Even though the former may require more human and material resources in the very beginning stage, as they have to deal with diverse grievances raised by major stake-holders, most of them would bound for strengthening reinforcing loops within the complex structure. These results imply that negotiation or consensus-building approaches to deal with public projects would enhance mutual agreement among major stake-holders, upgrading the overall quality of project management.


Keywords: Locally Unwanted Land Use (LULU) Facilities, Delay Dynamics, Public Project, Causal Loops, Stock-Flow Models




Evaluation of Research in Integrated Management and Services of Urban Development Records, Archives and Information

AN Xiaomi (安小米)

E-mail: xiaomia@yahoo.com; Tel: 86- 10-62513910


School of Information Resources Management, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, China


Abstract: To evaluate the project work in progress, this paper analyzes “why”, “what” and “how” issues of relevant integration research about integrated management and services of urban development records, archives and information based on a survey of literature at home and abroad. By a comparative study of current integration research status and features, the author gives a critical analysis of the strengths and weakness of the project and provides recommendations for future research. Cross disciplinary studies indicate that ideals of integration can add values to collaboration, innovation and optimum in managing evidence, information, memory and knowledge of built environment cross-culture, cross-discipline, cross-domain and cross institution for enhancing competitiveness and productivity of business. Cross cultural studies indicate that integrated records, archives and information management as a whole into capital construction project management process, organizational information resources management systems and the construction of digital urban development archival repository through service-control, process-control and product-control are fundamental to guarantee the characteristics and quality of records and records system to support evidence-based e-government, e-business and the sustainability development of digital city. Present studies on integrated management and services of urban development records, archives and information have limitations on too much emphasis on integration for collaboration and optimum but not enough studies on integration for innovation and broader social use.







中国人民大学信息资源管理学院  北京 100872


[摘要] 本文对与国家自然科学基金项目城市建设文件档案信息集成管理与集成服务相关的集成研究进行了中英文献的调查。通过分析中英文文献中集成问题的研究目的、研究内容和研究方法,归纳了中外相关研究的现状和趋势;通过对中外相关研究的比较与评析,发现了课题研究的局限,对未来研究提出了建设性意见。跨学科比较研究揭示集成思想对具有跨学科、跨领域和跨机构特点的城市建设证据、信息、记忆和知识的积累、共享和交流提供了合作、创新和优化的管理机制,有利于提高城市建设业务活动的效率、效益和效能。跨文化比较研究揭示,只有将文件、档案、信息的管理看成城市建设资源管理的有机组成,纳入城市建设工程项目管理全过程,纳入相关机构信息化工程建设全过程,纳入城市建设档案馆的信息化和数字档案馆建设全过程,才能实现城市建设档案的服务集成控制、过程集成控制和文件档案信息产品质量集成控制,保证文件档案信息具有真实性、可靠性、完整性和长久可用性,保证文件档案信息系统具有电子文件管理能力,能够支持基于证据的电子政务、电子商务活动,支持数字城市的可持续发展。目前的集成研究局限是过多强调合作和优化,但对管理创新和更广泛的社会化集成服务的研究不够




Globalization, Cross-Border Investment and Chinese Industrial Development





Abstract: This paper aims to examine the causes and impacts of FDI inflows to Chinese industrial development in terms of its quantitative unevenness and technological effects, which is of considerable significance for the presently advocated “indigenous innovation” among Chinese policy, academic and business communities. Staring with a brief review of theoretical debate on globalization, it suggests that the qualitatively different shape globalization takes from the past does not necessarily mean dependency has become obsolete in the post-colonial period. It then elaborates how the reform measures such as fiscal decentralization and the opening strategy as embodied by the establishment of a variety of zones in an intertwined way contributes to FDI fervor exemplified both sectorally and spatially. Using empirical data, this paper finds out that technological spillover triggered by FDI happens mainly on the intra-regional level via industrial linkages rather than on the intra-industrial scale through inter-firm communications. It finally concludes with the caution of technological dependency.










Implementation of GIS and Statistic Resources for Urban Sustainability Assessment


Dr. Changfeng Fu 1

Professor Joe Tah 1

Professor Ghassan Aouad 1

Professor Rachel Cooper 2


1The School of Built Environment, Salford University,

Great Manchester, M5 4WT



2The Institute of Arts and Design, Lancaster University

Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4YW


Urban sustainability assessment involves a number of soft issues regarding regional and local economic and society. The conventional methods to conduct this assessment are mostly based on qualitative approaches, such as semi-structured interview, questionnaire survey, case studies for certain areas and issues, and so on. However, these qualitative approaches can only handle a handful cases or samples, and the outcomes from the qualitative assessment can be only represented in simple media, such as text, table or charts. This paper here presents a comprehensive method to implement GIS spatial data regarding maps and boundaries and demographic and statistic data from various public resources. This is a study based on the Vivacity 2020 project, which is a large research project in sustainable urban design, sponsored within the SUE I program (Sustainable Urban Environment) by British Engineering and Physics Science Research Council. The works presented here include how to build connection between geospatial and non-geospatial information and geo-reference and represent those demographic and social and economic statistic data on maps. It starts with the introductions of different geospatial data being used in various geographic information management and national census and statistic in various aspects, including Ordinance Survey Master Map (OSMM), three layers of Supper Output Area (SOA) and Census Output Area (COA), etc. Following in the next is the major information entities and structures of the National Census and some national statistic data, such as Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD), the local business information from the Valuation Office Agent (VOA), the consumer classification data from Experian Mosaic UK and so on. Eventually, a conceptual model represented in UML (Unified Modelling Language) is developed to present the overall classes of both geospatial and those social and economic statistic data and interrelationships among these entities. The examples of applying these statistic data in the analysis of some specific issues in terms of urban sustainability are also described. Finally, the conclusion and future studies in this area are addressed.  



Typomorphology in Chinese Urban Design: Sustain the Cultural Identity of Space in Nanjing, China


Fei Chen

PhD Candidate

Architectural Building

University of Strathclyde

131 Rottenrow

Glasgow G4 0NG

United Kingdom


Tel: +44 (0)141 548 3017

Email: fei.chen@strath.ac.uk


Abstract: The cultural identity of Chinese urban form and the collective sense of domestic space, which play an essential role in making culturally sustainable and harmonious places of China, are facing huge challenge in the rapidly modernized and globalized Chinese cities. Along with the assimilation and encroachment of the conventional physic urban form, the cultural image of locality has been permanently lost, which makes Chinese cities placeless. The concept of type and theory of typology in urban planning and design will be employed in the research to understand the development of the urban fabric, abstract the essence of space and instruct planning practices by the establishment of local hierarchical types of city elements, such as the plan, silhouette, street & street network, urban blocks, urban public space, public buildings and houses.  Since type is defined in specific context, it symbolically delivers the meaning of place, evokes the collective memory of the culturally associated community.


Nanjing as the case studied city will be analyzed in the hierarchical framework in a chronological manner along with the major transformations in its history, as well as the political and economic forces affecting urban form. The paper will be organized as following. Firstly, the trajectory of typomorphology theory in the western world provides an abundant theoretic foundation, while Chinese traditions offer the practical context for the study. Furthermore, the general plan and street network & streets will be particularly focused in the walled area of the city in terms of the physical features and spatial configuration. Each type of street and street network in different stages reflects the design intent at that time, but spiritually connects with inhabitants’ daily lives over history, which remains a constant influence on the physical form. In addition, the analysis of existing city fabric gives a reference for a broad urban design toward a harmonious and balanced development in the future. 









Xin-Qi Zheng,1 Li-Hua Li,2 Wei-Ning Xiang3

1, 2School of Land Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), 29 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083, China  (010)8232-2138 zxqsd@126.com


3Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, North Carolina 28223, USA  (704)687-5969 wxiang@uncc.edu




Land development density, land use diversity, and urban design are the three principal dimensions, the “3Ds”, of the built environment which contribute to environmental quality and significantly impact quality of life (Cevero and Kockelman, 1997; Chen and Han, 2006; Li and Li, 2005). Planners compose plans by the 3Ds that apply “smart growth principles” to achieve the balance among economic development, environmental protection, and community development (American Planning Association, 1998). A piece of information critical to the success of their effort is the knowledge about the status quo of the 3Ds. This need of information support is particularly pressing in Beijing where a series of urban planning projects are being conducted under the newly adopted 2004—2020 Master Plan (Li et al, 2005; Zheng et al, 2006; Zhou and Liu, 2005).


Presented in this paper is a project that studies the characteristics of Beijing’s urban land development density through a multi-scalar (multi-regional) and multi-indices approach. Under this approach, a region’s development density is represented by three indices—building density, area discreteness, and construction compactness. They are defined, respectively, as the ratio between the region’s building roof areas and its total area, the ratio of building roof areas and the number of buildings in the region, and the average distance between buildings. Together, the three indices depict both the quantity and spatial distribution of urban development across a region. With the three indices, the city’s urban development density is characterized at three levels—the metropolitan area, the major transportation corridors and loops, and the jurisdictional entities (districts and counties).


In addition to the research findings, this paper will demonstrate how the spatial analytical capabilities in a geographic information system (GIS) were used during the course of the project to support both the development and implementation of the multi-scalar and multi-indices approach. Furthermore, it explores the prospect of developing a GIS-based planning support system on the basis of the present project.





新奇,1 李丽华,1象伟宁2  

1、中国地质大学(北京)土地科学技术系,北京 100083 zxqsd@126.com

2. 美国北卡罗来那大学夏洛特分校地理与地球科学系, 北卡罗来那28223 wxiang@uncc.edu





"3-D综合规划"是指把土地开发密度 (Density), 土地利用多样性(Diversity),和建筑格局设计(Design)统一考虑的土地利用规划方法.由于它强调经济发展, 环境保护, 和社区和谐三方面的均衡与协调发展, 在城市土地利用规划的实践当中, 是一行之有效并被普遍采用的方法. 而3-D综合规划的前提之一是对3-D现状的了解与评价. 对于北京市根据《北京城市总体规划(2004-2020)》正在进行的一系列土地利用规划来讲, 对3-D现状的了解与评价不仅是必要的而且是适时的.


本文所介绍的是一项对于北京城市土地开发密度, Density, 特征的研究. 在这项研究中, 对于北京城市土地开发密度特征的描述是基于以下两个理念. 第一, 土地开发密度不仅是个数量, 而且还是个有空间分布并随时间变化的矢量. 第二, 土地开发密度特征的描述既要有科学性, 增加人们对现状的了解, 又要兼顾实用性, 能够直接服务于3-D综合规划. 根据这些理念, 本项研究运用一个多指数多区域的方法对北京土地开发密度的特征从三个方面作了描述. 这三方面分别是建筑密度某区域内建筑的基底面积与区域面积的比例, 建筑离散度区域内建筑的基底面积与区域内建筑数目的比例, 和建筑紧密度区域内建筑之间的平均距离. 在此基础上, 本项研究对开发密度的特征在三个区域尺度上作了进一步的描述. 即大北京都市区, 行政区/, 以及功能区域(主要交通干线, 环城公路等).


此外, 本文还介绍了地理信息系统在这项研究中所起的重要作用, 并探讨了进一步开发3-D综合规划支持系统的可能性.



Toward More Sustaining Communities


By Diane M. Dale, ASLA, JD

Director of Community Design, William McDonough + Partners

Contact information

Diane M. Dale, ASLA, JD

Director of Community Design

William McDonough + Partners

700 E. Jefferson Street

Charlottesville, VA 22902


+1 (434) 979-1111



William McDonough + Partners (WM+P) is internationally recognized for their thought leadership in sustainable design. Grounded in a systems-led conceptualization process, the firm’s work continually explores the interface between form, system, and planning, resulting in critical implications for design. These efforts also strive to articulate “cradle to cradle” approaches to development – rather than “cradle to grave” – as formulated by the firm’s founding partner, William McDonough. This design philosophy pursues strategies that rely on renewable forms of energy, make positive contributions to air, water and soil quality, and capture natural and man-made resources typically lost as waste for reuse. The paper will explore how this approach is introducing both a replicable planning framework and viable models of sustainable development.

Hali’imaile, a neo-traditional community planned for Maui’s upcountry, represents a new prototype for approaching community design, particularly within a coastal setting. The project offers an integrated response to the challenges of development on the island while fostering the creation of a community that supports its developers’ workforce and reflects their corporate and cultural values. WM+P led a team of planners, architects and engineers through a systems-led conceptualization process, studying and analyzing energy, water and building performance issues around key engineering and architectural systems at the earliest stage of planning. These studies were intended to inform how environmentally intelligent infrastructure could influence the organization and pattern of a typically dense TND while enhancing environmental quality and performance across all scales, from building to site to community. The resulting work holds significant spatial implications for the land planning and site design of communities.

WM+P’s work on Kanawha, a new town in development south of Charlotte, North Carolina, also aspires to provide a new model for the organization and development of new residential and mixed-use communities. In addition to outlining aggressive on-site stormwater strategies, the master plan expands design considerations to integrate agriculture within the physical and social fabric of Kanawha from the outset of the planning process. This intertwining of economic and ecological goals will create long-term value, protect the local ecology, and expand opportunities for social interaction – all the while serving to enhance the community’s marketability and residents’ quality of life.

This work represents a continuum of innovation, in which each project builds on lessons learned. By introducing both a replicable planning framework and viable models of sustainable development, WM+P is helping communities redefine development in ways capable of realizing a truly sustaining future.





Urban Growth and Environmental Health: Applications of the Alternative Growth Futures Model


Li Yin

Assistant Professor

Department of Urban and Regional Planning

School of Architecture and Planning, University at Buffalo

116 Hayes Hall, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, New York, 14214-3087

telephone: 716-829-2133

fax: 716 829 3256



Urban growth rates across China in recently years are unprecedented. The rapid urban growth has heightened concerns about sustainable development in China. In the US, the rapid growth in the West also caught attentions and resulted in numerous studies. Are pursuing both growth and environmental health mutually exclusive?


Urban Environmental management relies on a complex understanding of trade-offs between habitat preservation or restoration, agricultural protection, and demands for new urban land uses. A variety of models have been developed to help evaluate the effects of alternative urban growth patterns on consumption of resources and the health of cities in the US West.  This paper reviews applications of the Alternative Growth Futures Models (AGF) in California and Colorado (Muller and Yin, 2001; Muller, Bertron and Yin, 2002; Muller, et. al., 2002) and offer suggestions on how the model may be applied China.


The AGF model provides a framework for scenario-based evaluation of the effects of alternative land use policies on the balance between environment protection and urban land uses.  In this paper, we discuss the structure of the urban growth model as applied in several western United States counties, results of impact analysis and policy implications. In modeling urban land use change and urban growth, we generally ask how much impact a policy will have on socially valued spatial asset.  The “how much” question is typically used to steer an evaluation of prospective alternatives, and thus helps in the formation of policy to control these alternatives.


This paper discusses the efforts to assess how land use policies might influence development patterns and mitigate unfavorable environmental changes in 10 counties in western United States.  These studies conclude that with guidance and voluntary incentives, growth can be directed away from sensitive lands and alleviate adverse environmental impacts.  These models can help increase available planning information, test the possible environmental consequences of proposed policies, and support collaborative planning efforts. Through the discussion of the applications of the AGF model in the fast growing areas in the American West, this paper aims to draw implications and set up a framework on the application of the model in China.



Economic Efficiency of Urban Landuse and Its Change: A Case Study of the Pearl River Delta, China


HOU, Quan



Department of Geography and Centre for China Urban and Regional Studies

Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong


Tel: (852) 34117886

Email: houquan@hkbu.edu.hk



The land surface of the Earth, our home as well as our workplace and main source of sustenance, has always been a limited resource. Furthermore, the unprecedented rates of population growth have been posing an ever-greater demand pressure on the very limited land resource. For the scarcity nature of land resource, monitoring landuse change and improving landuse efficiency is of critical significance.

Urban areas, where people, property and wealth increasingly concentrate, are of vital importance. The extent and pace of urban growth, combined with the correlation between urban growth and economic development, have led to concerns about the sustainability of continued economic growth. Apparently, a sustainable development can be achieved only by raising the efficiency of landuse provided the scarcity nature of land resources in a specific region. In order to achieve this goal, several procedures, such as monitoring and measuring the efficiency of landuse, and appropriate public policy to promote improvements of landuse efficiency, must be involved.

In responds to the need for measures of monitoring urban landuse efficiency, this study aims to conceptualize urban landuse efficiency from an economic point of view, using the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region as a case study. Urban landuse efficiency will be measured by economic output per unit of developed land, which can be deemed as grand mean economic efficiency, and the increase of economic output per unit of growth in urban landuse, which can be deemed as marginal economic efficiency. Urban landuse information of the PRD region at three years of 1992, 1998, and 2001 will be extracted using remotely sensed images. Then the relationship between urban landuse expansion and economic growth will be presented, so as to quantify urban landuse efficiency and its temporal change in terms of economic performance. The findings are expected to shed lights on policies pertaining to urban landuse, such as when and how much land should be converted into urban uses.



Globalisation and Urban Planning Decision-Making in China


Xingyu, LI has recently completed his Master’s degree in Human Geography at Oxford University Centre for Environment (OUCE), UK.

Flat 1204, Building 10, West Gate, Xili Xiaoqu, Yongding Rd, Beijing, China 100039

Tel: +86 10 68212053 (China) or +44 7887 963 133 (UK)

Email: lixingyu@gmail.com


Liu, CHEN is a PhD candidate at School of Economics, Nanjing Universty, China

22 Hankou Rd, School of Economics, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China 210093

Tel: +86 13815891881

Email: chxiaoliu@126.com



Globalisation has engraved new features to the urbanisation process in China. It has greatly changed the subject, structure, process and concept of governing, and posed serious challenges to the traditional nation state, regime and governmental institution. Within cities, these effects have transformed people’s political life, as well as the systems of urban governance and environmental management.


Since the economic reform, China has decentralised the responsibility and authority of urban planning to the local level. While being empowered through such a move, local authorities often lack the means of tackling the social and environmental problems related to the planning process. Thus, both the planning authorities and society seek new, innovative partnerships with other stakeholders such as NGOs, social groups and the private sectors, to develop sustainable solutions for urban development.


This paper discusses the impact of globalisation on urban planning, by exploring the increasing participation of civil society groups in decision-making. It also draws on discussions of the transitional roles of traditional and new communication networks (e.g. Internet), which have become more and more crucial in the interaction of urban authorities and local communities. The paper uses Beijing as a case study and highlights how globalisation has influenced the urban planning polity in present China.




Transporting Pupils to and from their Schools

-- US Experience and Implications for China


Feng Zhang

Ph.D. Candidate

Urban Studies and Planning Program

School of Architecture, Planning, and Preservation

University of Maryland, College Park

College Park, MD 20742 USA

Telephone: 240-481-1894   Email: fzhang@umd.edu


“Black School-bus” has been a terrifying word to people, especially parents of pupils, in China, as severe incidents that draw the nation’s attention frequently happened upon those for-profit unregulated school transportation services. On the one hand, the demand for school transportation services of parents are rapidly thriving, possibly because of increasing distance between schools and students and tightening working schedules of family members. On the other hand, China, as a nation, never has a tradition of providing or regulating school transportation service, except that a small number of cities have their local regulations. The occurrence and boom of so-called black school-bus indeed lies in this demand-supply contradiction. An urgent question arises: shall the government provide public school transportation services to transport pupils to and from their schools and how? This paper is intended to address this question conceptually by first introducing the history and experience of pupil transportation in US and second discussing its implications in the context of China.


The public school transportation system in US dated back to early 18th century. And nowadays the US operates the most extensive dedicated school bus system in the world – 23.5 million children, about 54% of the population, are carried on 440,000 buses. This paper tries to take US experience and model as the starting point of discussion on its potential in China. Therefore, first of all, a 200 years’ history of school transportation system is introduced briefly with emphasis on influential policies and underlying rationales. Second, a case of Montgomery County, Maryland public school transportation system is introduced and analyzed in details. Specific questions are to be answered in this case study including who runs and pays for the system, what polices are there, do children ride school-buses or not and why, and what are other institutional and technical issues.


Conceivably US model may not be directly applied to Chinese context. However, lessons can be drawn from its experience to help us address the overarching question – why and how. Direct benefits (i.e., improved children safety and traffic relief) are to be analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Other indirect or intangible impacts, such as parent schedule flexibility increase and emission reduction, are to be discussed as well. Based on US experience, I will try to explore important issues (e.g. safety, funding) that are necessary to account for when central or local government considering to regulate or provide pupil transportation and to furnish corresponding recommendations.


Keywords: Pupil Transportation, School Transportation, School Bus, US experience, Safety















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